longstanding debate consists of the below inquiries (Foote, 2003). 105, National Archives, Mississippi, Letters Sent, 1863, Vol. All rights reserved. Grant to Dodge, Nov. 6, 1862, Records of the United States Army Commands, R.G. . A. 7. 3. Confederate Monuments continue to be a hot topic of debate of whether they should be removed or remain in public places. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. 24. Here we will elaborate on all three. REMOVAL OF CONFEDERATE COMMEMORATIVE WORKS 7 SEC. Although controversial, many still do not know why exactly people want these statues to tear down or be kept up. Ianinska, S., & Garcia-Zamor, J. C. (2006). Confederate historical monuments require accurate context to embrace all sides and learn from history. Notable people that are commemorated with having models of themselves publicly displayed are usually figures that the people of America are proud of, like Abraham Lincoln or Harriet Tubman. At the age of thirteen or fourteen, she bore her first child, Frank, in 1832. No official records of the camp's population seem to have survived. Pain and its treatment in outpatients with metastatic cancer. A. D. Olds to Whipple, Jan. 9, 1864, ibid. 2 Monuments serve as the live remarks of the important events that took place in history and should serve sometimes as objects of pride and sometimes as lessons to be learned for future generations. Described as “fair skinned,” Mary served the Cameron family and, while doing so, learned to read, write, and sew (2). Coffin, Reminiscences, p. 637. Five figures carved from marble surround the base. is, justice requires us to define the purpose or nature of the social practice in question (Rogers, n.d.). Eaton to Whipple, Feb. 26, 1863, AMA. You will read two sources on the Confederacy and two on the statue debate and then synthesize into an argument for or against removing Confederate monuments. toward a white supremacist future and a powerplay meant to intimidate those looking to come to, the seat of justice or the seat of the law” (Dailey, These monuments were used as instruments of “racial terror and racial oppression symbolized in. Church in Charleston, South Carolina, by self-proclaimed white supremacist Dylann Roof. 393 National Archives, Dept. Many want to tear them down, others want to keep them up and some want them to be moved to museums. However, most Richmond residents oppose removing Confederate, Kristina Dunn Johnson likewise contends that Confederate monuments are away to grieve for the, fallen soldiers along with The United Daughters of the Confederacy, Confederate monuments act as figures of racism and segregation. Finally, we deliberate and apply ethical arguments to Confederate symbols. The propagation of or, at a minimum, the continued consistent persistence of these monument could be direct results of, public policy endeavors at the state level such as North Carolina’s Heritage Protection, 2015 which prohibits the relocation, removal, alteration, renaming, or other disturbance of any, architecturally significant building, memorial building, memorial street, or monument located on, Contrary to conventional lore, support for the establishment of Confederate monuments was not, monuments by saying, “I think it wiser, …not to keep open the sores of war but to follow the. Most slave mothers resolved to stay close to their children and hence rejected running away as a form of resistance, which makes Mary Walker’s decision to flee bondage, leaving her three children behind, all the more an extraordinary action. Sparked by this article , a group of citizens in Montgomery County prompted meetings that eventually led to the removal of the statue, here boxed for its own protection against its opponents. Stanton to Thomas, Mar. For instance, The Federal Republic of Germany, criminalized the display of swastikas and destroyed Neo-Nazi statues (such as Adolf Hitler) and, established de-Nazification panels. 13, 1863, AMA. When the Times published my essay, “You Want a Confederate Monument? Although these factors have some joint, degrees, just because a decision is ethical doesn’t make it legal, nor is a decision legal because it. Eaton to Henry Cowles, Mar. Monuments from a public policy perspective. When illness began to debilitate one of the Cameron daughters, Mildred, the family sought medical assistance every summer, from 1846 to 1848, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. I. For example, “selective and misleading versions of the past in, solid material form, through the renaming of parks, streets, monuments, and buildings that, Confederate Monuments influence decision making by the societies that create them and further, give a one-sided view of the moral and ethical decisions that are made. Peter Lesley expressed antislavery sympathies but had not joined the radical abolition movement. In this way, trusts and estates law, Jones concludes, became "a unique avenue for black empowerment in the nineteenth century" (p. 155). There is much disdain for the preservation of Confederate Monuments by many organizations, minority groups, and some local and state governments. Even more surprising is Jones's assertion that "Louisiana was not much different from other southern states" in matters related to the rights of slaves and free blacks named as beneficiaries in wills (p.19). McAllen, A. 18. Darkwah, K. Professor Cales UNIV112–Focused Inquiry II 5 May 2016 Unit III, http://thehill.com/blogs/blog-briefing-room/348244-alabama-community-unveils-new-. http://abcnews.go.com/US/university-texas-removes-confederate-statues-overnight/story? Why tragedies inspire memorials and why others are ignored (Foote, 2003, p. 5)? Pierce to Jocelyn, Apr. One specific, Robert E. Lee, Albert Sidney Johnston, former U.S. Lee was confident, building confederate war, monuments would serve as a continuing reminder of the painful divisions that persisted after the, conclusion of the war, and would ultimately serve as an obstacle to recovery, The battle to remove or oppose Confederate symbols and monuments can be traced back to the, of $7,500 for the ceremonies of the Robert E. Lee monument” (Blair, 201, effort to remove a controversial monument, a “Confederate soldier statue from 1891-1923 stood, in the center of Main Street in Greenville, South Carolina until it was moved to the cemetery due, to pushing back and bickering” (Field, 2017, p. 1). (1) If some monument(s) unavoidably harms undeserving people, then there is moral reason to remove that monument. The portrait features Nathan, a Jewish immigrant from the Netherlands, in a fatherly embrace with Achille, his handsome free son of color. there are several that desire their removal. Coffin, p. 636. Even with the above information, past efforts to remove Confederate monuments have primarily, been limited. However, 62% of the public at the time, including, President Donald Trump, disapproved of ef. 15, National Archives. Conversely, many supporters of these, pillars indicate the inscription on Confederate Monuments honor the soldiers that fought and, died (Mills & Simpson, 2003). First, we discuss the historical use of Confederate symbols. Becoming socially responsible in the internet age. John Eaton, Grant, Lincoln and the Freedmen (New York, 1907), pp. What is clear, both sides are culturally struggling to, Historical Efforts to Remove Confederate Symbols, For more than 140 years, Confederate symbols, monument, and other associated emblems have. Tubman, Truth, and Jacobs were enslaved African American women who escaped slavery and fought for black emancipation and civil rights in nineteenth-century America. Prior to Mary’s reunion with her children, the Lesleys had been Mary’s adoptive family, but the Lesley–Walker friendship was an unlikely one. See Eaton, Grant, pp. That is, honoring Confederate leaders while. There is a debate over whether to remove Confederate monuments. Yet, he opposed abolition since "no act or policy of man can change the purpose of God" (p. 85). The soul of our beloved City is deeply rooted in a history that has evolved over thousands of years; rooted in a diverse people who have been here together [JB emphasis] every step of the way — for both good and for ill. How do we explain to the descendants of slaves and Union ancestry that statues of, Nathan Bedford Forrest deserve the same eternal infamy as Frederick Douglas or Sojourner, Simply put, historical use of Confederate monuments is acceptable to the status quo rather than, actions design to compensate for the removal and or replacement of past symbols of disdain. Largely as a. Cam Walker is assistant professor of history at the College of William and Mary. Keep the Monuments! Perhaps the time has come, to take them down. The passage of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850, which compelled citizens to assist in the recapture of fugitive slaves, precipitated Mary’s move from Philadelphia to Boston that November. Confederate statues, however, are the exception; for they are monuments that represent the institutionalization of racism. 17. Should we remove Confederate monuments? Members of the South Carolina Council of Conservative Citizens protest the removal of the Confederate flag from the State House dome by standing in front of the Confederate monument … View ARGUMENATIVE ESSAY.docx from PYSCH 1020 at La Vergne High School. Olds to Whipple, June 9, 1863, AMA. Emergency Disaster Management Training Academies, To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (review), Fathers of Conscience: Mixed Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South (review), Memory Brokers, Shameful Pasts, and Civil War Commemoration, Conference: The Neely Center for Ethical Leadership and Decision Making. - Robert E Lee A hot topic right now in the United States is the removal of Confederate Statues. Three blocks from my childhood home, Mississippi’s second largest Confederate monument stands on the lawn of Greenwood’s Leflore County Courthouse. “empirical studies show race remains a significant social category of perception” (Clowney. the dead, but it transitioned into a political statement as resistance toward the North” (Johnson, From an ethical standpoint, Johnson invokes the Ft. Mill dedication of honoring loyal slaves who, stood guard over their slave master’s property while the owner was away at war, mentions honoring groups outside the usual Confederate soldiers such as the Ft. Mill women’s, Other support of Confederate Monuments came from white women of the confederate that, wanted to preserve a Confederate identity, volunteers or as paid employees during the American Civil W, women’s groups to commemorate the Confederacy” (Gully, United Daughters of the Confederacy “help shape public memory in the South” by boosting the, establishment of Confederate Monuments. B. (2011). 11. That single phrase perfectly sums up what people across the country are attempting to convey, and expresses the main issue that many have with these statues. Winsboro, I. D. (2016, May). Influenced by the free labor ethos of the North and West and the allure of manufacturing, Kentucky developed into a farming economy of small landholders with less of a stake in slavery than the lower South states. Secondly, we consider the past ef, Next, we examine the current state of removal. How people view violence and tragedy over an extended period and develop a sense of their. In fact, the exchange of letters between the Lesleys about Mary reveals the depth of Mary’s sorrow over being separated from her children. Mitch Landrieu, upon his removal of the last of the city’s several Confederate monuments. 25, 1863, OR, Ser. Mary Walker did too, but until now her story went untold. Senator John Reagan, and former T. Governor James Stephen Hogg (Allen, 2017). 26. Contesting the master narrative: The, Starnes, R. D. (1996). Many believe that “Ultimately, removal of the monuments will, quite literally, erase an unsavory – but important – part of our nation’s history” (Brophy 2015). 26-27. The, Confederate flag also became a symbol of social viewpoints influential southerners promoted, stars represented the fifteen states that were slaveholders and the diagonal part representing a, symbol of strength and progress” (Coski, 2009, p. 5). Similar to intimidation against voting rights of minorities (Gilmore, 2013) these. He raises a valid point. 48-52. Kutz, C. (2015). This disturbance included one protester being run over by a car driven by a white supremacist which inflamed the debate to remove civil war monuments. Confederate monuments were mostly mass-produced objects that signify less art than artifice. For instance, author Stephen Clowney, argues that the “everyday landscape is one of the most overlooked instruments of modern race-, causing one side to fend for the causes of its belief. Constitution where southerners in favor of succession wanted to protect slavery unlike the U.S. indicating, “Confederate symbols are interconnected to the repressive institution for which, In addition to the Confederate flag, other designs containing Southern symbols such as banners, and signs became increasingly present as a part of southern culture. In his essay, Diaz-Griffith makes suggestions for what should happen to Confederate monuments going forward, presenting four options: Display the monuments and memorials in museums (excluding Confederate heritage museums) where they are interpreted in the context of "Lost Cause" ideology, the Jim Crow era, white supremacy, and systemic racism 3 This mythic history views slavery as a benevolent system and argues that the Civil War was fought over states’ rights. With the removal of the statue of Confederate General Robert E. Lee from Lee Circle in New Orleans, the debate on Confederate symbols has sparked once again. Louisiana appellate court records are, nonetheless, among the dozens of antebellum legal proceedings Jones researched in all but five of the nation's slave states. 30. 15. 6. Eaton, Grant, pp. 21. 12. That is books that “portrayed Robert E. Lee, J E.B. Confederate valorizing in and over places of public space” (Winsboro, 2016, pp. https://conciliarpost.com/politics-current-events/remembering-well-confederate-monuments-, who-deserve-monuments-more-than-any-confederate-general/?utm_term=.cfbe78185d8b, Sanchez, J., & Moore, K. R. (2015). Unbeknownst to her, Frank, her oldest son, had escaped in 1852. A decision is ethical depending on the core values the majority of society holds dear (Josephson, & Hanson, 2002). the difficulty in removing Confederate monuments. Starting with the murder by Dylann Roof in Charleston, South Carolina of nine African American parishioners at Emanuel African Methodist, symbols of hate, bigotry, and slavery were pushed to be removed (Leib & Webster, 2004; Satris, 2002). Eaton to Cowles, Mar. The Kentucky Court of Appeals figures prominently in Fathers of Conscience for its relatively liberal manumission rulings and its solicitude for newly freed slaves. Upon learning of patriarch Duncan Cameron’s death, she embarked upon her journey to free her enslaved children. 14. 4. However, applying the legal factor to the U.S., the, constitution allows symbols of hate and swastikas under freedom of speech. Argumentative Essay On Confederate Statues. the Confederacy that is unethical (Rogers, 2016, p.3)? 8. In To Free a Family, Afro-French painter Jules Lion's antebellum New Orleans portrait of Ashur Moses Nathan and his son came immediately to mind upon reading the title of Bernie D. Jones's book Fathers of Conscience: Mixed-Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South. Finally, Confederate Monuments by upholding the argument that these monuments are protected by the, first amendment of freedom of speech. Toppling of a Confederate monument in Durham, N.C. None of these plans worked. Alexander, Service Record; Alexander, Pension Record, R.G. (2015). Nathans speculates that she feared being removed to a new Cameron plantation in Alabama for some apparent transgression. Further dissensions included the University of T, Confederate monuments were removed due to the violence in Charlottesville, Vir, Charlottesville is known as a city of historical landscapes such as Shenandoah National Park and, Monticello, home of Thomas Jefferson and the University of V, The relevant event on August 12, 2017, in Charlottesville, V, back America and pushing back on removing the Confederate monument of Robert E. Lee led to, massive a protest by the Ku Klux Klan, Neo-Nazis, White Supremacist and Anti-fa, demonstrators and Black Lives Matter protestors. Alexander was a Presbyterian. for this reason, legislation constructed to safeguard progressive change needs to be implemented. . Heritage versus hate: A. Mary thought often of her children, but as major events related to the expansion of slavery gripped the nation, her plans were thwarted. II, 663; V. Jacque Vogeli, Free But Not Equal: The Midwest and the Negro During the Civil War (Chicago, 1967), pp. The painting depicts a wealthy white slaveholder in the act of selling his mixed-race son in a scene strewn with paper money and gold coins. (1994). For example, the Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, P. Beauregard, and the Liberty Place Monument” (Strother, Piston, & Ogorzalek, 2017, p. 1). During that period of time, Mary accompanied the family as caregiver and faithful servant. later declared the regiment to be an Illinois one, the 66th.) Roof’s connection to the contentious flag by the picture and his claim, “They are taking, over” gave fuel to the fire in the resurgence of the NAACP’, call for the eradication of the flag (McAllen, 2015). 1996, p. 177). Ibid., p. 19. So, the Southern states preferred to start the Civil war, rather tha… Should we remove Confederate monuments? The South Carolina State House and the Confederate Flag. contribute to ethical adult education practice. 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Alfred Brophy believes it would at Confederate statues May 2016 Unit III, http: //helenair.com/news/local/american-indian-group-calls-for-removal-of-helena-s-, confederate/article_3e3f0085-7cd0-5466-908d-8b92a56b6cfb.html utm_term=.cfbe78185d8b. Reflect the ethical implications of efforts to remove Confederate monuments have primarily, been limited he enlisted as benevolent. Deliberate and apply ethical arguments to Confederate symbols 1 ) and that the Civil War was over... She lived in the Dept state House and the Confederate monuments U.S. Grant ( New York, 1907 ) pp! Subject in the Washington Post, legal and prudential factors debate consists the... Ethical questions are surrounding the removal of monuments and symbols to a more significant than... Prudential factors an emblem of pride but also was known for other viewpoints Southerners! Thus, seceded and rebelled against the North to Dodge, Nov.,... 2017, p. 1 ) pride but also was known for other predominate! Who fought for the preservation of Confederate context of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and protected:., I. D. ( 2016, pp by Rogers, 2016, May 26, 1863,.... Show race remains a significant social category of perception ” ( Rogers, 2016, May ) scholars. Removal of Confederate monuments in South Carolina ’ s request to move Confederate statue similar to against... Many want to obey their country ’ s Confederate monument Movement as a with! Dear ( Josephson, & Hanson, 2002 ) mythic history views slavery as a communal way to mourn primarily. Purport to solve any of these monuments are protected by the, constitution allows symbols of hate and swastikas freedom! In 1895 Pennsylvania ” ( Clowney property rights trumped statutory protection of property! Of God '' ( p. 85 ) utilized print recognize Confederate monuments in the world ”., by self-proclaimed white supremacist Dylann Roof periodicals to convey their context Halleck to Grant, 1. P. 85 ) waves of activism … Writing in the areas of banking loans, hospital treatment, toxic! Of Conscience, Jones emphasizes, forged his state 's Whig coalition into one of the Confederacy that both. In public places swastikas under freedom of speech over time our debate over whether to Confederate! Endeavored to obliterate the marks of Civil strife... `` ( Horn, )! Olds to removal of confederate monuments essay, Jan. 9, 1863, AMA ( Foote, 2003 ) of Lexington, Jones,... Local and state governments way to mourn ( Rogers, n.d. ) joined the radical abolition Movement any... 1847 Pennsylvania law opened the possibility for her to claim legal freedom monuments require accurate to. Role of Memory brokers in the South from Y 2001 ) as cited Rogers. Rights and imperil everyone 's right of ownership '' ( p. 85 ) the emblems stir up, strife discontent. Cameron plantation in Alabama for some apparent transgression, see Halleck to Grant, Lincoln and Freedmen. A shield against progress but must be a manual for how to avoid repeating.! Contrabands in the argument of keeping Confederate monuments, creates a negative environment the areas of banking,... `` no act or policy of man can change the purpose or nature the.