Several archaeological surveys have been performed during the 20th and 21st centuries in ruins of Jewish villages across Judea and Samaria, as well in the Roman-dominated cities on the Israeli coastal plain. In addition, it is generally considered that Legio XXII Deiotoriana took part in the campaign,[citation needed] and was annihilated. Gargilius Antiques may have preceded Rufus during the 120s. Sabotage is a possibility, as is an accidental fire, though Christian historians of the time ascribed it to divine intervention. Inside the water system, supporting walls built by the rebels were discovered, and another system of caves was found. [1] In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea or Ancient Israel, Emperor Hadrian wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina. This gave the Jews a purpose they did not have in the first war. The last phase of the revolt is characterized by Bar Kokhba's loss of territorial control, with the exception of the surroundings of the Betar fortress, where he made his last stand against the Romans. After the siege at Masada ended the first war, the Romans deployed a full legion to Judea instead of a small garrison in order to prevent a similar uprising. [75] It is likely that the Samaritan revolt of 556 was joined by the Jewish community, which had also suffered brutal suppression of their religion under Emperor Justinian.[76][77][78]. This is how the Jewish Encyclopedia in the Article 'Bar Kokhba and Bar Kokhba War' describes the situation before the Revolt: Even after R. Joshua ben Hanahiah succeeded in preventing the Jewish Revolt, the Jews remained quiet only on the surface; in reality, for over fifteen years they prepared for a struggle against Rome. the emperor Trajan embarked on military a campaign to crush the Parthian (Persian Empire) in the east (today Iraq and Iran) After initial successes, Trajan’s legions suffered a series of defeats and he was forced to retreat (he died while on this campaign in 117). Shortly after the eruption of the revolt, Bar Kokhba's rebels inflicted heavy casualties to Legio X Fretensis, based in Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Unlike the revolt of 66 CE, the historical sources on the Bar Kochba Revolt are scanty at best. - Simeon Bar Kochba and his army were finally defeated at the city of Beitar. The Rabbinic account describes agonizing tortures: R. Akiva was flayed with iron combs, R. Ishmael had the skin of his head pulled off slowly, and R. Hanania was burned at a stake, with wet wool held by a Torah scroll wrapped around his body to prolong his death. In 355, however, the relations with the Roman rulers improved, upon the rise of Emperor Julian, the last of the Constantinian dynasty, who, unlike his predecessors, defied Christianity. However, bar Kokhba obviously was not the messiah because things didn't turn out any better for the Jews in this war than in the first. [82], Over the years, two schools formed in the analysis of the Revolt. In the aftermath of the defeat, the maintenance of Jewish settlement in Palestine became a major concern of the rabbinate. [40] Were the claim true it has been conjectured that Hadrian, as a Hellenist, would have viewed circumcision as an undesirable form of mutilation. [49], Following a series of setbacks, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britannia,[50] and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. - Eventually, the Roman army took back Jerusalem from the Jews. [69] The Gallus revolt came during the rising influence of early Christians in the Eastern Roman Empire, under the Constantinian dynasty. The end came at the fortress of Betar. The story of Bar-Kokhba was a legend in Jewish history - some actually believed he wasn't a real person. The 2013 discovery of the military camp of Legio VI Ferrata near Tel Megiddo,[89] and ongoing excavations there may shed light to extension of the rebellion to the northern valleys. Some of the Judean survivors resettled in Galilee, with some rabbinical families gathering in Sepphoris. The Jerusalem Talmud relates it to the Temple, Taanith 25b: Benjamin H. Isaac, Aharon Oppenheimer, 'The Revolt of Bar Kochba:Ideology and Modern Scholarship,' in, Aharon Oppenheimer, 'The Ban on Circumcision as a cause of the Revolt: A Reconsideration,' in. [citation needed]. He first reconquered the Galilee to cut the Romans off from the sea. Similarly, under the argument to ensure the prosperity of the newly founded Roman colonia of Aelia Capitolina, Jews were forbidden to enter, except on the day of Tisha B'Av.[66]. [8] The proximate reasons seem to centre around the construction of a new city, Aelia Capitolina, over the ruins of Jerusalem and the erection of a temple to Jupiter on the Temple mount. Cave of Horror is the name given to Cave 8 in the Judaean Desert of Israel, where the remains of Jewish refugees from the Bar Kokhba revolt were found. [13][15] However, the Jewish population remained strong in other parts of Palestine, thriving in Galilee, Golan, Bet Shean Valley, and the eastern, southern, and western edges of Judea. Cassius Dio also wrote: "Many Romans, moreover, perished in this war. ... Maccabean revolt. Despite arrival of significant Roman reinforcements from Syria, Egypt, and Arabia, initial rebel victories over the Romans established an independent state over most parts of Judea Province for over two years, as Simon bar Kokhba took the title of Nasi ("prince"). Especially violent were the third and the fourth revolts, which resulted in near annihilation of the Samaritan community. THE BAR KOKHBA REVOLT: THE ROMAN POINT OF VIEW* By WERNER ECK. More than just a leader, a well respected rabbi, Akiva ben Yosef posited the possibility that bar Kokhba was the Jewish messiah. The causes of the Bar Kokhba revolt have long been debated. The revolt was well planned, and the Romans were taken by surprise as the Jews stormed the city. Hadrian renamed the region Syria Palaestina (Palestine today) in an attempt to dissuade future generations of Jews from reclaiming it. The Jews had the first one from which to learn and they were determined to do things differently. While by no means com… Severus' arrival almost doubled the number of Roman troops facing the rebels. In between the first one (see Jerusalem Destroyed) and this one, there was a little known conflict called the Kitos War, which was fought primarily outside Judea. In the compound republic of america, the power surrendered by the people is first divided between two distinct governments, and then the portion allotted to each subdivided among distinct and separate departments. [b] – according to Rabbinic sources[4]. The fortress was besieged by the Romans in late 134 and was taken by the end of the year or early in 135. cx; Eusebius "Hist. Enraged, Bar Kokhba confronted the elderly Rabbi Elazar, kicking him and causing his death. [83], It is generally accepted that the Bar Kokhba revolt encompassed all of Judea, namely the villages of the Judean hills, the Judean desert, and northern parts of the Negev desert. By early 136 however, it is clear that the revolt was defeated. [7] The proximate reasons seem to be the construction of a new city, Aelia Capitolina, over the ruins of Jerusalem and the erection of a temple to Jupiter on the Temple Mount. [84], Until 1951, Bar Kokhba Revolt coinage was the sole archaeological evidence for dating the revolt. Samaria partially supported the revolt, with evidence accumulating that notable numbers of Samaritan youths participated in Bar Kokhba's campaigns; though Roman wrath was directed at Samaritans, their cities were also largely spared from the total destruction unleashed on Judea. The imperial coinage pronounced the aduentus of the Emperor to be a cheerful and blessed event in much the same terms as in other parts of the Empire.' [60] In addition, many Judean war captives were sold into slavery.[14]. In between the first one (see Jerusalem Destroyed) and this one, there was a little known conflict called the Kitos War, which was fought primarily outside Judea. Then he surrounded Jerusalem and forced them out. The failed Bar Kokhba revolt, which is marked today by Jews around the world with the holiday of Lag Ba’omer, itself celebrated with bonfires, was one of the most traumatic events in the history of the Jewish people, a history with no shortage of traumatic events. Killing more than half a million Jews and destroying almost a thousand villages, the Bar Kochba Revolt (132-35) was a major event in Jewish history and a blotch on the reputation of the good emperor Hadrian.The revolt was named for a man called Shimon, on coins, Bar Kosibah, on papyrus, Bar Kozibah, on rabbinic literature, and Bar Kokhba, in Christian writing. One of the most dramatic archaeological discoveries is the letters written by Bar Kokhba himself (whose real name was Simeon bar Kosiba) during the revolt. In the post-rabbinical era, the Bar Kokhba Revolt became a symbol of valiant national resistance. Bar Kokhba Judaea’s Leaderless Revolt Against Rome The Second Temple was destroyed in the course of the Judaean Revolt (66–73 C.E.) It was significant in that it took place at the very end of Trajan's reign and gave the future emperor, Hadrian, a taste of what he might have to contend with. [27] The Church Fathers and rabbinic literature emphasize the role of Rufus in provoking the revolt. The governor of Judea, Tineius Rufus, performed the foundation ceremony, which involved ploughing over the designated city limits. The revolt was led by the Judean Pharisees, with other Jewish and non-Jewish factions also playing a role. Gaius Publicus Marcellus, the Legate of Roman Syria, arrived commanding Legio III Gallica, while Titus Haterius Nepos, the governor of Roman Arabia, brought Legio III Cyrenaica. As of July 2015 some 350 hideout systems have been mapped within the ruins of 140 Jewish villages. Betar, Fall of (8) Bar Kokhba Revolt (Book) By Yosef Eisen. [86] Despite this discovery, the Israel Antiques Authority still maintained the opinion that Jerusalem was not taken by the rebels, due to the fact that of thousands of Bar Kokhba coins had been found outside Jerusalem, but only four within the city (out of more than 22,000 found within the city). Simon bar Kokhba was believed to be the Messiah by Rabbi Akiva, the greatest rabbinical sage of his generation, because he led a successful independence revolt against Rome. Lindsay Powell's book, The Bar Kokhba War AD 132–135 tells the story of the last Jewish revolt over the Roman Empire. Archaeological evidence for the revolt was found all over the site, from the outside buildings to the water system under the mountain. 2005. The Jewish sage Rabbi Akiva, who was the spiritual leader of the revolt,[45] identified Simon Bar Kosiba as the Jewish messiah, and gave him the surname "Bar Kokhba" meaning "Son of a Star" in the Aramaic language, from the Star Prophecy verse from Numbers 24:17: "There shall come a star out of Jacob". The seat of war was transferred to Palestine, whither the Jewish leader Lucwas had fled (Abulfaraj, in Münter, "Der Jüdische Krieg," p. 18, Altona and Leipsic, 1821). [81], A popular children's song, included in the curriculum of Israeli kindergartens, has the refrain "Bar Kokhba was a Hero/He fought for Liberty," and its words describe Bar Kokhba as being captured and thrown into a lion's den, but managing to escape riding on the lion's back. He prohibited Torah law and the Hebrew calendar, and executed Judaic scholars. In 39 AD Emperor Caligula decreed that his statue be placed in every temple of the Empire, including the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, which offended Jewish religious sensibilities. Eusebius of Caesarea wrote that Jewish Christians were killed and suffered "all kinds of persecutions" at the hands of rebel Jews when they refused to help Bar Kokhba against the Roman troops. The deeply ambivalent rabbinical position regarding Messianism, as expressed most famously in Maimonides "Epistle to Yemen," would seem to have its origins in the attempt to deal with the trauma of a failed Messianic uprising. As well as leading the revolt, he was regarded by many Jews as the Messiah, who would restore their national independence. [68] The Sages endeavoured to halt Jewish dispersal, and even banned emigration from Palestine, branding those who settled outside its borders as idolaters.[68]. Legio II Traiana Fortis, previously stationed in Egypt, may have also arrived in Judea in this stage. Works on Aelia Capitolina, as Jerusalem was to be called, commenced in 131 CE. The Bar Kochba Revolt: A Disaster Celebrated by Zionists on Lag Ba'Omer . - At first, Simeon Bar Kochba and his Jewish army successfully defeated the Romans in battle. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea or Ancient Israel, he wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina. A man by the name of Simon bar Kokhba. Imagine the incredible excitement of those involved in the discovery of the caves when they learned they had finally uncovered the final resting place of Bar-Kokhba and others who were with him. This thesis will explore the immediate causes of the Bar Kokhba revolt and compare them to other provincial revolts in the Roman Empire. Only after several painful defeats in the field did the Romans decide to avoid open conflict and instead methodically besiege individual Judean cities. Later on it is proposed by some historians that Legio XXII Deiotariana was sent from Arabia Petraea, but was ambushed and massacred on its way to Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), and possibly disbanded as a result. The Jerusalem Talmud, compiled over the next couple centuries, is a primary source for the Bar Kokhba revolt. [67] Rabbinic Judaism had already become a portable religion, centered on synagogues. Three potsherds with the names of three of the deceased were also found alongside the skeletons in the cave. [8] The best recognized source for the revolt is Cassius Dio, Roman History (book 69),[3][90] even though the writings of the Roman historian concerning the Bar Kokhba revolt survived only as fragments. 3, "Hebrew, Aramaic and Nabatean–Aramaic Papyri", edited Yigael Yadin, Jonas C. Greenfield, Ada Yardeni, W. Eck, 'The Bar Kokhba Revolt: the Roman point of view' in the, Aharon Oppenheimer, 'The Ban of Circumcision as a Cause of the Revolt: A Reconsideration', in. But more importantly, this movement had a leader. In 363, not long before Julian left Antioch to launch his campaign against Sassanian Persia, he ordered the Jewish Temple rebuilt in his effort to foster religions other than Christianity. The revolt erupted as a result of religious and political tensions in Judea following on the failed First Revolt in 66–73 CE. There are few sources about Bar-Kokhba. One of them is maximalists, who claim that the revolt spread through the entire Judea Province and beyond it into neighboring provinces. [93], The Cave of Letters was surveyed in explorations conducted in 1960-61, when letters and fragments of papyri were found dating back to the period of the Bar Kokhba revolt. Published on 18.05.2014. The Bar Kokhba revolt (Hebrew: מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא ‎; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.Fought circa 132–136 CE, it was the last of three major Jewish–Roman wars, so it is also known as The Third Jewish–Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt. Rabbinical literature ascribes the defeat to Bar Kokhba killing his maternal uncle, Rabbi Elazar Hamudaʻi, after suspecting him of collaborating with the enemy, thereby forfeiting Divine protection. The rebels incorporated combined tactics to fight the Roman Army. Bar Kokhba There are some hints in Rabbinical sources concerning the characteristics and personality of Bar Kokhba who was the military leader of the Jewish Revolt against the Roman Empire. The Talmud, for instance, refers to Bar Kokhba as "Ben-Kusiba," a derogatory term used to indicate that he was a false Messiah. Onias III … [citation needed], The ruins of Betar, the last fortress of Bar Kokhba, destroyed by Hadrian's legions in 135 CE, is located in the vicinity of the towns of Battir and Beitar Illit. Legio III Cyrenaica was the main force to execute this last phase of the campaign. [48] Hideout systems were employed in the Judean hills, the Judean desert, northern Negev, and to some degree also in Galilee, Samaria and Jordan Valley. as 'unreliable and problematic,'[36][37] states tensions rose after Hadrian banned circumcision, referred to as mutilare genitalia [38][39] taken to mean brit milah. Many houses utilized underground hideouts, where Judean rebels hoped to withstand Roman superiority by the narrowness of the passages and even ambushes from underground. The 10th legion had to evacuate its fortress at Jerusalem. But they killed about 500,000. [9], In 132, the revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from central Judea across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). War of Quietus. I 30 Hadrian journeyed to Egypt through Judaea, the latter province seemed altogether peaceful and calm. The first conflict, known as the Jewish War or the First Revolt, was fought from A.D. 66 to 70; the second conflict, known as the Bar Kokhba War, raged from A.D. 132 to 135. Hostilities broke out in 132. As a widely traveled emperor, he went to Judea in 130 and visited the ruins of the Jewish temple. The Jewish communities of Judea were devastated to an extent which some scholars describe as a genocide. Despite easing the persecution of Jews following Hadrian's death in 138 CE, the Romans barred Jews from Jerusalem, except for attendance in Tisha B'Av. The Bar Kochba Revolt was in response to Hadrian's plan to rebuild Jerusalem as a Roman _____ , not a Jewish center. At that point, Legio VI Ferrata was sent to reinforce the Roman position from Legio base in Yizrael Valley, fielding altogether some 20,000 Roman troops, but was unable to subdue the rebels, who nearly conquered Jerusalem. [19][20][21] By destroying the association of Jews with Judea and forbidding the practice of the Jewish faith, Hadrian aimed to root out a nation that had inflicted heavy casualties on the Roman Empire. In 2014, one half of a Latin inscription was discovered in Jerusalem during excavations near the Damascus Gate. According to a Rabbinic midrash, the Romans executed eight leading members of the Sanhedrin (The list of Ten Martyrs include two earlier Rabbis): R. Akiva; R. Hanania ben Teradion; the interpreter of the Sanhedrin, R. Huspith; R. Eliezer ben Shamua; R. Hanina ben Hakinai; R. Jeshbab the Scribe; R. Yehuda ben Dama; and R. Yehuda ben Baba. Dio Cassius also records the events in his Historia Romana. [71] Julian's support of Judaism caused Jews to call him "Julian the Hellene". [80], The disastrous end of the revolt also occasioned major changes in Jewish religious thought. There were several differences though between this fight and the first war. He expressed sympathy for the plight of the Jews and made a promise to rebuild their temple. [1], According to some views, one of the crucial battles of the war took place near Tel Shalem in the Beit She'an valley, near what is now identified as the legionary camp of Legio VI Ferrata. [65] Legio X Fretensis sustained heavy casualties during the revolt. [17][18] In addition, some historians argue that Legio IX Hispana's disbandment in the mid-2nd century could have been a result of this war. Legio V Macedonica and Legio XI Claudia are said to have taken part in the siege. While some claim further resistance was broken quickly, others argue that pockets of Jewish rebels continued to hide with their families into the winter months of late 135 and possibly even spring 136. [citation needed] Hadrian's death in 138 CE marked a significant relief to the surviving Jewish communities. [52] According to Jewish tradition, the fortress was breached and destroyed on the fast of Tisha B'av, the ninth day of the lunar month Av, a day of mourning for the destruction of the First and the Second Jewish Temple. [24] Although Jewish Christians regarded Jesus as the Messiah and did not support Bar Kokhba,[25] they were barred from Jerusalem along with the other Jews. "Jews and Samaritans", The military and militarism in Israeli society, "Roman Legion Camp Unearthed in Megiddo - Inside Israel - News - Arutz Sheva", 'New Insight into the Bar Kokhba War and a Reappraisal of Dio Cassius 69.12-13,', WATCH: 2,000-YEAR-OLD INSCRIPTION DEDICATED TO ROMAN EMPEROR UNVEILED IN JERUSALEM, "The Dates used during the Bar Kokhba Revolt", Wars between the Jews and Romans: Simon ben Kosiba (130-136 CE), Archaeologists find tunnels from Jewish revolt against Romans, Second Temple / Ezra's Temple / Herod's Temple, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bar_Kokhba_revolt&oldid=999356349, Articles with dead external links from December 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 200,000 Jewish militiamen killed or enslaved, Large-scale destruction of Judean population by Roman troops, Suppression of Jewish religious and political autonomy by Hadrian, Vol. A stone inscription bearing Latin characters and discovered near Betar shows that the Fifth Macedonian Legion and the Eleventh Claudian Legion took part in the siege. [19][20][21] “Immediately after the Bar-Kokhba revolt, the Romans decided to abolish the province of Judea and to obliterate any mention of its name,” Yasur-Landau and Gambash explain. Edited by Peter Schäfer. It is plausible that Legio IX Hispana was among the legions Severus brought with him from Europe, and that its demise occurred during Severus' campaign, as its disappearance during the second century is often attributed to this war. [12], The Bar Kokhba revolt resulted in the extensive depopulation of Judean communities, more so than during the First Jewish–Roman War of 70 CE. [70] The failure to rebuild the Temple has mostly been ascribed to the dramatic Galilee earthquake of 363, and traditionally also to the Jews' ambivalence about the project. Bar Kokhba embraced this possibility and took the title Nasi Israel (prince of Israel). Despite the reference to Jerusalem, as of early 2000s, archaeological finds, and the lack of revolt coinage found in Jerusalem, supported the view that the revolt did not capture Jerusalem. The sacred scrolls of Judaism were ceremonially burned at the large Temple complex for Jupiter which he built on the Temple Mount. Simon bar Kokhba declared Herodium as his secondary headquarters. The Bar Kokhba revolt (Hebrew: מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא‎; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire. Tensions continued to build up in the wake of the Kitos War, the second large-scale Jewish insurrection in the Eastern Mediterranean during 115–117, the final stages of which saw fighting in Judea. [9], Historians have suggested multiple reasons for the sparking of the Bar Kokhba revolt, long-term and proximate. In 132, a revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from Modi'in across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Jerusalem. Galilee became an important center of Rabbinic Judaism, where the Jerusalem Talmud was compiled in the 4th-5th centuries CE. Judaea was almost completely devastated, and Jewish life shifted from Judaea to the Galilee. There were several differences though between this fight and the first war. It was concluded that the Legion was disbanded between 120 and 197 CE - either as a result of fighting the Bar Kokhba revolt, or in Cappadocia (161), or at the Danube (162). The Roman army was made up of six full legions with auxiliaries and elements from up to six additional legions, which finally managed to crush the revolt. Given the continuing inability of Legio X and Legio VI to subdue the rebels, additional reinforcements were dispatched from neighbouring provinces. '"[63] Some argue that the exceptional number of preserved Roman veteran diplomas from the late 150s and 160 CE indicate an unprecedented conscription across the Roman Empire to replenish heavy losses within military legions and auxiliary units between 133 and 135, corresponding to the revolt. Shalev-Hurvitz, V. Oxford University Press 2015. p235, "Ancient Inscription Identifies Gargilius Antiques as Roman Ruler on Eve of Bar Kochva Revolt", A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, "Roman provincial coin of Hadrian [image]", "The Bar Kochba Revolt: A Disaster Celebrated by Zionists on Lag Ba'Omer", "Julian the Apostate and the Holy Temple", Evans, J.A.S. In The Second Jewish Revolt: The Bar Kokhba War, 132-136 C.E., Menahem Mor offers a detailed account on the Bar Kokhba Revolt in an attempt to understand the second revolt against the Romans.Since the Bar Kokhba Revolt did not have a historian who devoted a comprehensive book to the event, Mor used a variety of historical materials including literary sources (Jewish, Christian, Greek and … Heavy – XXII Deiotariana was disbanded after serious losses but their hope quickly turned disdain... Which began in 63 BC, Jews were excessively taxed and their religion persecuted CE marked a significant relief the. Complex for Jupiter which he built on the other hand, Cotton considered Dio 's figures highly plausible, provoking. Water system under the mountain following the Fall of ( 8 ) Bar Kokhba revolt ( )... To maintain order skeletons in the field did the Romans 2,000 years.! 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